Fauzia Maraam

Islamic Calligraphy in India: Exploring Behārī / Bihārī script and Reflections on Qur’ānic manuscript(s) in Behārī / Bihārī


Islamic Calligraphy had been one of India’s most significant parts of Muslim culture and civilization. With the beginning and development of proper

Muslim society, various calligraphic scripts were being practiced in the Indian subcontinent during the Muslim rule. Behārī / Bihārī ( خط بہاری ) script is a significant contribution of the Afghan race and Indian Afghans to the field of

Calligraphy, though significantly less is known about it. Historically, it is seen that whenever a Muslim dynasty came into existence in a particular place, a new script has developed along with the local variant of any pre-existing script.

Likewise, a new calligraphic script called Khatt-i-Taʻlīq ( خط تعلیق ) emerged as soon as the Ilkhanids made Tabriz their capital. Similarly, Behārī / Bihārī ( خط بہاری ) script developed as soon as the Delhi Sultanate was established in India. It is generally held to be evolved and developed in the then Eastern India (Bihar, Jharkhand, Bengal, and Bangladesh). This script possesses a peculiar style in which the vertical strokes are fine and thin, whereas the horizontal strokes are thick. It lies between the cursive and angular script. However, the genesis is less known, but it is observed and documented that Behārī / Bihārī ( خط بہاری ) script has been reserved for the Qur’ānic texts (Arabic) only. Some Qur’ānic manuscripts copied in the Behārī / Bihārī ( خط بہاری ) script found belonging to the Sultanate period and Early Mughals have been preserved in India. The present paper is a discourse on understanding and exploring the different dimensions of Behārī / Bihārī ( خط بہاری ) script along with the structural analysis of the Qur’ānic manuscripts copied in it.

Keywords: Islamic Calligraphy, Indian sub-continent, Behārī / Bihārī script, Muslim Rule, Qur’ānic manuscripts


  • Date of Birth                  ۱۹۹۲/۰۲/۱۵
  • Nationality                      Indian                     
  • E-mail                             f.maraam@gmail.com

Academic Record

  • Currently research scholar in the Department of Islamic Studies, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India)
  • B.A and M.A in Islamic Studies with Distinction and Gold Medals. Research topic: “Significance of Islamic Calligraphy in Islamic Culture and Heritage.”


  • Contribution to several illustrious events and conferences on philosophical, spiritual, theological, and historical themes along with disciplinary and interdisciplinary themes.
  • Collaborating with contemporary academicians, Islamic scholars, artists, and calligraphers globally
  • Working on the contours of art and different dimensions of Islamic Calligraphy


  • Oct 2020: lecture on the Degeneration of Islamic Calligraphy in India as a Key-Note Speaker in an International Calligraphy Competition organized by Callithon
  • Since 2016: participating regularly in various international and national seminars, webinars, workshops, and conferences


  • “Islamic Calligraphy: A Sacred Art in Islam.”
Back to top button