Anwar Khan

History of Calligraphy and its Developments in the Context of Time


Calligraphy is the art of Muslims. And the fact is that this art is related to the Quran. The Qur’an is the last book revealed by God Almighty. The Qur’an is the axis for the individual and collective life of Muslims. Every Muslim loves this book and recites it daily. His recitation created the art of Tajweed and recitation, his writing created the art of Tajweed calligraphy. From day one, the Muslim community has been appreciating this noble art. From kings and emperors to the people, they have been equally involved in its reverence and sanctity. The names of Sufis and architects, Haddad, Zarkob, etc. are found on public lines. In fact, it was common in Muslim society to have a taste for curd. A poet has said well.

As long as Muslims flourished, this world of appreciation continued. But since the emergence of the foreign nations on the Islamic world and the Western civilization has touched the hearts and minds of the Muslims, the decline of this art has begun. The art of calligraphy will be important to real printing and instrumental printing. Demand for this specialty has grown significantly as a result of recent corporate scandals. Masterpieces of art gradually fell into disrepair. The art of calligraphy was overshadowed. Early art education in schools became obsolete.

The beginning of alphabet

Three thousand years before Christ, a Semitic tribe migrated from Babylon and settled in the Syrian region of Canaan. This branch is called Aramaic. The Torah and the Qur’an mention the Aramaic race. One branch of comfort was Phoenician. The famous Greek historian Herodotus mentions the Phoenician nation in his history. For this reason, Western historians generally refer to them as Phoenicians.

This nation achieved great heights. Damascus was their capital. It is the oldest living city in the world. Beirut, Kasur and Sidon were also his cities. (Sodom Tire) The latter two cities were drowned in the destruction of the nation of Lot. In fact, it was a trading nation. He was also a determined sailor. They had settled their trade colonies far and wide on the Mediterranean coast. ۔ They had colonies in Italy, France, Spain and the coast of Africa. The famous port of Marseilles in southern France is their hometown. His real name was Morsi Elia, meaning “port of God.” Carthage was an important city near the Tunisian coast of Africa, the capital of his African empire. Their settlements were in the Mediterranean islands of Crete, Rhodes, Sicily, Sardania. Their trade caravans roamed the sea. It was the world’s first international trading nation. From India to Central Europe was the cradle of their trade caravans. Modern discoveries show that this was the first shipwreck nation to cross the Atlantic Ocean in ancient times and two thousand from Columbus. He arrived in South America a year ago. Cyrus N. Gordon, a professor at Branders University, found an inscription in Aramaic in the jungles of Brazil. This inscription dates back to the reign of Ahir Umm Badshah Sham. It is clear that Aramaic sailors entered South America thousands of years ago.

Syria is located between the two civilized countries of Babylon and Egypt. It was a gateway for both countries. Due to the importance of the location, the Aramaic nation made great strides in trade. They were well acquainted with both the Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations. Used them He was also well acquainted with the script of both the countries. They used them in their business dealings. The commercial necessity made them realize the need to invent easy transliteration. It should be noted that the symbolic impressions in Babylon and Egypt had stopped at a certain destination. He carried on his work. They set separate marks for different sounds coming out of the throat. With the help of these symbols, he was able to write words and phrases. This simple invention of his proved to be of paramount importance. This feat of his in 2000 BC is an important milestone in human history. This was a great step of man towards progress and greatness. The invention of letters simplified the problem of writing. Thus paved the way for human development and rise. The credit for inventing the alphabet in the world goes to the Aramaic race. It was a total of 22 characters.

Western historians have sparked a strange debate here. In his opinion, this invention is not of Aramaic Semitic descent. They must have got this invention from another nation. Then there is the great difference of opinion as to which nation they got this invention from. According to some, the alphabet is derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic script. According to some, the Babylonian corn is derived from the letter. Some people have brought a distant flag. They consider it to be derived from the letter of Aquarius. All this brainwashing is due to the fact that Europe’s racial prejudice is unwilling to accept that even the non-Aryan race can do something. They do not want the Semitic race to be credited with such a great achievement. However, the great historian Toynbee wrote in his famous book “Study of History” that “the Semitic race has made three invaluable gifts to the world of humanity. Discovery of the Atlantic Ocean, 2. Invention of the Alphabet”

There is great disagreement among ancient scholars, modern scholars, and Orientalists as to the origin and origin of the Arabic alphabet. Dr. Salahuddin Al-Masjid (Bruzen Muzammil) summarizes the whole discussion and research. There are three views on the origin of the Arabic alphabet. The Arabic script is derived from the Syriac script. (Historian Blazeri) Thirteen Arabic letters have reached Mecca from there and then from there. (Historian Ibn Nadeem) The Arabic script is derived from the Musnad script. The historian Ibn Khaldun (may Allah be pleased with him) said that it is only by studying and analyzing the books of the Arabic script written before Islam that have been discovered so far that an opinion can be formed about the correctness of the above-mentioned organizations. Merely quoting an ancient book is not enough evidence to support a theory. All ancient Arabic books have been found in the region of Petra Nabataeans. At that time there was no influence of Syriac at all. Syriac’s home was in the state of Heera. It was a Christian state. But to date no Arabic inscription has been discovered there. There is a big difference between Musnad script and Arabic script. Ibn Nadeem used to write on page 4 of Al-Qamar Sat.

“Older people in Yemen say that the alphabet in the Musnad script was different from the Arabic alphabet.”

This difference is clear from this sentence. Now the clear theory is that the Arabic script is derived from the Nabataean script. The growth of the ancient Arabic script has also been discovered from the area of the Nabataean script. An ancient Arab state was established in the area of present-day Jordan. The Greeks called it Petra (Arabic, Batra and Tadmar). This state was established in the first century BC. The founder of this state was Nabati. Who were of Arab descent and spoke a special dialect of the Arabic language. They had two main cities. Salah Batar in the north and Tajr and Madain Saleh in the south. In the year 6 BC, they also captured the historic city of Damascus from the Seleucids. Basri, located on the trade highway, was their commercial market.

It was a green and lush area. The international trade route from Yemen to Rome (Turkey) passed through here. Goods from India etc. were transported to Europe through this route. That is why trade was booming here. Thanks to trade, this nation was very comfortable. Civilization also developed here. In 5 AD, the state was annexed to the Roman Empire. But even after that, civilization continued to flourish there. He also had great skills in architecture. They used to build houses by cutting down the mountains. He is also mentioned in the Holy Quran.

Keywords: calligraphy, Aramaic script, Islamic art


  • Date of Birth                   1992
  • Nationality                        Pakistani                                
  • E-mail                   

Academic Record

  • ۲۰۱۸: BFA  Department of Art & Design University of Peshawar KPK
  • Experienced oil, acrylic, pastel, pencil color

Professional experiences

  • Visiting Lecturer at PIAC Abdul Wali Khan University Garden Mardan
  • ۱۰ Days Workshop with Dr. Sumaira Javed in PNCA Islamabad Pakistan
  • Group show at Alhamra Arts, Gallery Lahore Pakistan
  • Group Show at PNCA, Islamabad Pakistan
  • Art Preservation & Conversation 10 Days Workshop at Alhamra Art Gallery Lahore
  • Two wings to fly not one Workshop with Imran Qureshi  at PNCA Islamabad
  • ۹th National Art Exhibition at PNCA islamabad
  • Regional Exhibition Akra to Peshawar via Takht Bhai
  • Lafz e Muhammad (PBUH)  National Calligraphy Exhibition Gojar khan Punjab
  • Eid Miladul Nabi (SAW) National Calligraphy Exhibition  Faisal Abad Miraj National Calligraphy Exhibition Gujranwala
  • Noon Walqalam National Calligraphy Exhibition Alhamrah Lahore. Eid Miladul Nabi (SAW) Calligraphy Exhibition Sialkot.
  • Calligraphy Workshop at Sarhad University Peshawar by JAVED QAMAR
  • Abdul Majeed Parveen Raqam National Calligraphy Copmetition  Serena Hotel Islamabad Abdul Majeed Parveen Raqam National Calligraphy Competition  Serena Hotel Faisalabad


  • ۸ March 2015: 1st Position in International Womens Day Poster competition Art & Design Department UoP Peshawar
  • ۸ December 2014: 2nd Position in Childhood Mirrage Painting Competition University of Peshawar Puta Hall
  • ۱۸ April 2015: 1st Position in International Womens Day Poster competition Aiwan e Quaid Islamabad
  • ۲ December 2015: 1st Position in Canvas2 Painting Competition at Spring Villege Peshawar.
  • ۲۸-۲۹ April 2015: 1st Position in Khana e Fun Calligraphy Competition at Iqra University Hayat Abad Peshawar
  • ۲ December 2015: 1st Position in Canvas2  Live Painting Competition at Spring Villege Peshawar
  • ۲۲ April 2015: 1st Position in Kaawish Art Competition Uet Peshawar.
  • ۶-۷ May2016: 1st Position in Khana e Fun Calligraphy Competition at Iqra University Hayat Abad Peshawar
  • ۶th December 2016: 2nd Position in Talent Award Nishter Hall Peshawar
  • ۱st Position in National Ashraf ul Qalam Calligraphy Competition Shakir Ali Mesium Lahore (Traditional)
  • ۲۸ May 2016: 2. nd Position in Illigal Immigration Painting Competition at Sarhad University Peshawar
  • ۲۰ June 2016: 1. st Position in World Refuji Day Painting Competition HEC Hayat Abad Peshawar
  • ۱st Position in National Ashraf ul Qalam Calligraphy Competition Shakir Ali Mesium Lahore (Modern)
  • ۱st Position in Lafz e Muhammad National Calligraphy Competition Alhamra Lahore
  • ۱st Position in Guljee Award Nishter Hall Peshawar
  • ۱st Position in Lafz e Muhammad Modern Calligraphy Competition Alhamrah Arts Council Lahore
  • ۱st Prize in AAP Art Exhibition Alhamrah Arts Council Lahore

Permanent work display

  • Masjid e Nabawi Painting in Saudi Embassy
  • Saudy Kings Family Painting Saudi Arab
  • Truck Art Painting in Islamabad International Airport Islamabad
  • Shahja e Rasool Calligraphy in DC office Charsadda
Back to top button