Ali Mashhadi Rafi

Chronological Stylistics of Ta’liq Script


The descriptions given in the written sources about the Ta’liq script and its evolution from the beginning of its formation in the medieval ages to the time of its decline in the Qajar period are so scattered and mixed with contradictory information, which makes the study of this script and its evolutionary history truly difficult. One of these obvious contradictions is the introduction of more than four inventors in historiographies for the invention of Ta’liq script, which sometimes is such scattering that two different calligraphers are mentioned as the creators of this script in one single historiography.

A significant part of the available information about the styles, calligraphic techniques and even the instructions for reading the texts written in Ta’liq is more or less the result of the efforts of researchers in the field of Persian Diplomatics, which mostly include those of efforts regarding reading and somehow decoding words and phrases written in calligraphic style of Ta’liq. In fact, a significant part of the historical written materials left in this script are a notable number of Persian medieval documents, through comparing which with a handful of fragments in calligraphic Ta’liq different styles of this script could be identified.

This article is aimed to compare the descriptions mentioned in historiographies and epistolary art handbooks about Ta’liq with some examples left in this script and furthermore to suggest a preliminary classification for stylistic of Ta’liq on the basis of its evolution.

Keywords: Ta’liq, Islamic Scripts, Stylistics, Persian historical Documents.

[۱] PhD in Iranian Studies



  • Date of Birth                  ۱۹۸۳
  • Nationality                      Iranian
  • E-mail                   

Academic Record

  • Shahid Beheshti University & Iranology Foundation, PhD in Iranian Studies
  • Shahid Beheshti University & Iranology Foundation, M.A. in Iranian Studies (Manuscript Researches)


  • ۲۰۱۳: The Challenges of Search Engines of Online Databases for Islamic Manuscripts, Notes on Islamic Heritage. Supervised by Y. Beygbabapour & A. Khameyar. Tehran: Safir Ardehal publication. 2013. pp. 11-24. ISBN: 978-600- 313-016-6 (in Persian)
  • ۲۰۱۴: Decoration in Safavid Royal Documents (1501-1736 AC), نامه بهارستان (Nameh-ye Baharestan, The International Journal for Iranian and Islamic Manuscripts Researches). New Series, No.4, Summer 2014. pp. 112-121. ISSN: 1608-912X (in Persian)
  • ۲۰۱۵: Book Review: Illumination of Qurans from the Qajar era, Art Quarterly Book Review, No. 7, Autumn 2015, pp. 185-190. (in Persian)
  • ۲۰۲۰: The Functions and Scope of Authority of “Majles-e Behesht-Ayin” (The Royal Assembly of the Safavid Senior Officials). Historical Sciences Studies, 11(2), 231-250. ISSN: 2251-9254 (in Persian)


  • ۲۰۱۶: Marginal Notes in Islamic Manuscripts, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran
  • ۲۰۲۰: Application of Ethnographical Methods and Knowledge in Writing a Travelogue, Tehran, Iran


  • ۲۰۱۲: The Role of Scribe Related Entries in Facilitating The Retrieval Process in Persian Manuscript Collections, IFLA World Library and Information Congress, Helsinki, Finland
  • ۲۰۱۳: Safavid Manuscripts of Persian Epistolary Art in National Centre of Manuscripts (Georgia, Tbilisi), 2nd International Symposium of Georgian Manuscripts, Tbilisi
  • ۲۰۱۳: Data entry worksheet: Preserving images and decorations of Persian manuscripts and lithographed books IFLA World Library and Information Congress, Singapore
  • ۲۰۱۳: Material Analysis of Safavid Isfahani Papers International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technology in Manuscript Analysis, Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures, Hamburg
  • ۲۰۱۵: Application of Safavid Manuscripts of Persian Epistolography in Historical Diplomatics of Safavid Era Eighth European Conference of Iranian Studies, St. Petersburg
  • ۲۰۱۷: Historical Sites of the Medieval era in Tehran, Rey and Varamin Plates, Association of the Tour Leaders of Tehran Province, Tehran, Iran
  • ۲۰۱۹: Baseline in Taliq Script, Ketab-Arayie-e Irani Institut, Tehran, Iran
  • ۲۰۲۰: Coordinator and Host for the Series of Lectures on Taliq Script, Ketab-Arayie-e Irani Institut, Tehran, Iran

Realized projects

  • ۲۰۰۶-۲۰۱۰: Establishing local aid funds for developing ecotourism in Dena Protected Area (Khafr Village, Isfahan Province) Executive member of the Teamproject Plan for the Land Society under the Supervision of UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
  • ۲۰۰۷-۲۰۱۱: Generating an alternative and sustainable income for the local people of Khaar Touran area based on craftsmanship and ecotourism which are compatible with protective plans of the Department of Environment (IRA-06-09 76th) Executive member of the Teamproject Plan for the Land Society under the Supervision of UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
  • ۲۰۱۴: Conservation Plan for the Manuscripts preserved at Sheik-Ahmad-Jaam Tomb, Torbat Jaam, Iran
  • ۲۰۱۵: Cataloging of Murraqas, Fragments and Paintings Preserved at Rare Book and Manuscripts Section of the National Library of Iran, Tehran, Iran
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